Ingredient Substitutions

There was a time when I was always looking for ingredient substitutions – I didn’t always have the right ingredient in my pantry and was looking for what I else I could use. Well, over time, I ended up gathering together quite a list and I wanted to share it. I’m still adding to this as I find new substitutions, so if there’s one that should be added, leave a comment and I’ll add it in.

Food

Amount

Substitute
Alcohol/Flavored Liqueur

any amount

Flavored liqueurs, extracts can be substituted if you make up the balance of the liquid with water. I.e. 2 tbsp = 1/2 tsp of orange extract; It is important to keep the volume of liquid in the recipe the same as originally called for.
Allspice

1 tsp

1/2 tsp cinnamon + 1/2 tsp ground cloves
Almond Paste

1-1/3 cups

1-3/4 cups ground blanched almonds + 1-1/2 cups powdered sugar + 1 egg white + 1 tsp almond extract + 1/4 tsp salt
Almonds – unshelled

1 lb

3/4 to 1 cup shelled
Ammonium bicarbonate

3/4 tsp

1 tsp baking soda
Apple pie spice

1 tsp

Mix 1/2 tsp ground cinnamon, 1/4 tsp ground ginger, 1/8 tsp ground allspice and 1/8 tsp ground nutmeg
Arrowroot

1 tbsp

1 tbsp cornstarch, potato starch or rice starch -OR- 2 tbsp all purpose flour
Baking mix (bisquick)

2 cups

Mix 1-3/4 cups all-purpose flour, 2-1/2 tsp baking powder and 3/4 tsp salt. Cut in 1/3 cup shortening until mixture looks like fine crumbs
Baking powder

1 tsp

1 tsp baking soda + 1/2 tsp cream of tartar
Baking soda

There is NO substitute for baking soda
Balsamic vinegar

1 tbsp

1 tbsp sherry or cider vinegar
Bay leaf

1 whole

1/4 tsp crushed
Breadcrumbs – dry

1/4 cup

1/4 cup finely crushed cracker crumbs, corn flakes, or quick-cooking or old-fashioned oats
Broth – chicken, beef, or vegetable

1 cup

1 tsp (or 1 cube) chicken, beef or vegetable bouillon granules dissolved in 1 cup boiling water
Butter

1 cup

1 cup margarine -OR- 7/8 cup shortening and 1/2 tsp salt
Buttermilk

1 cup

1 tbsp lemon juice or white vinegar + enough milk to make 1 cup -OR- 1 tbsp vinegar + sweet milk to make 1 cup -OR- 2/3 cup plain yogurt + 1/3 cup sweet milk
Capers

1 tbsp

1 tbsp chopped green olives
Carob

3 tbsp

3 tbsp cocoa and 1 tbsp shortening
Carob Powder

1 tbsp

1 tbsp cocoa powder (either natural or Dutch-processed)
Chili Sauce

1 cup

1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown sugar, 2 tbsp vinegar, 1/4 tsp cinnamon, dash of ground cloves and dash of allspice
Chives (finely chopped)

2 tsp

2 tsp green onion tops finely chopped
Chocolate – semi-sweet

1 square (1oz)

3 tbsp chocolate chips -OR- 1 square (1oz) unsweetened chocolate + 1 tbsp sugar
Chocolate – sweet baking (German)

4oz

1/4 cup unsweetened cocoa powder + 1/3 cup sugar
Chocolate – unsweetened

1oz

3 tbsp cocoa + 1 tbsp butter or regular margarine or vegetable oil
Chocolate chips – semi-sweet

1oz

1oz sweet cooking chocolate chopped
Chocolate chips – semi-sweet, melted

6oz pkg

2 squares unsweetened chocolate, 2 tbsp shortening and 1/2 cup sugar
Cocoa

1/4 cup or 4 tbsp

1oz chocolate (decrease fat in recipe by 1/2 tbsp)
Coffee

1/2 cup strong brewed

1/2 cup hot water and 1 tsp instant coffee granules
Corn syrup – dark

1 cup

1 cup light corn syrup -OR- 3/4 cup light corn syrup + 1/4 cup molasses -OR- 1 cup maple-flavored syrup
Corn syrup – light

1 cup

1 cups sugar + 1/4 cups water
Cornstarch

1 tbsp

2 tbsp all-purpose flour
Cream – clotted

1 cup

1 cup crème fraîche -OR- 1 cup mascarpone cheese -OR- 1 cup heavy whipping cream (35%), whipped
Cream – coconut

1 cup

1 cup whipping cream1 cup canned coconut cream -OR- 1 cup top layer of canned coconut milk (not low fat) (do not shake or stir can before skimming) -OR- 1 cup heavy whipping cream (35%) + 1/2 cup coconut cream powder
Cream – coffee cream (20% fat)

1 cup

3 tbsp butter + 7/8 cup milk
Cream – crème fraîche

1 cup

1 cup sour cream -OR- 1 cup whipping cream + 1 tbsp buttermilk or yogurt -OR- ½ cup whipping cream + 1/2 cup sour cream -OR- 1 cup mascarpone cheese
Cream – heavy

1 cup

3/4 cup milk and 1/3 cup butter or margarine (only for use in cooking and baking)
Cream – light

1 cup

3/4 cup milk and 3 tbsp butter or margarine (only for use in cooking and baking) -OR- 1 cup evaporated milk
Cream – whipping (40% fat)

1 cup

1/3 cup butter + 3/4 cup milk
Cream – whipping (unwhipped)

1 cup

1 cup UNWHIPPED whipping cream expands to 2 cups when WHIPPED — I.e., if your recipe called for 1 cup of cream to make whipped cream, you could substitute 2 cups of an already whipped product
Cream – whipping (whipped)

1 cup

1 cup frozen (thawed) whipped topping -OR- 1 cup prepared whipped topping mix
Cream of Tartar

1/2 tsp

1/2 tsp white vinegar or lemon juice
Currants

1 cup

1 cup raisins -OR- 1 cup chopped dates -OR- 1 cup other dried fruit (cranberries, cherries, blueberries)
Currant Jelly

rape jelly -OR- 3 parts apple jelly plus 1 part lemon juice -OR- muscadine jelly
Egg white

1 white

2 tsp sifted dry egg white powder with 2 tbsp water
Eggs

1 large

2 egg whites -OR- 1/4 cup egg product -OR- 2 egg yolks + 1 tbsp water (for cookies and bars)
Flour – wheat

1 cup

7/8 cup all purpose flour + 2 tbsp wheat germ -OR- 1 cup graham flour
Flour – all purpose

1 cup sifted

1 cup and 2 tbsp cake flour -OR- 1 cup minus 2 tbsp unsifted all-purpose flour -OR- 1 cup rice flour
Flour – cake

1 cup

3/4 cup all purpose flour + 2 tbsp cornstarch
Flour – self rising

1 cup

1 cup minus 2 tsp all purpose flour + 1-1/2 tsp baking powder + 1/4 tsp salt
Garlic (finely chopped)

1 medium clove

1/8 tsp garlic powder -OR- 1/4 tsp instant minced garlic
Ginger root (grated or finely chopped)

1 tsp

3/4 tsp ground ginger
Herbs – fresh

1 tbsp

1 tsp dried herbs
Honey

1 cup

1-1/4 cups sugar + 1/4 cup water or apple juice
Italian seasonings

1-1/2 tsp

1/4 tsp each dried marjoram, oregano + basil plues 1/8 tsp sage
Ketchup (for cooking)

1 cup

1 cup tomato sauce, 1/2 cup sugar and 2 tbsp vinegar
Leeks (sliced)

1/2 cup

1/2 cup sliced shallots or green onions
Lemon

1 piece

3 tbsp lemon juice -OR- 1 tsp grated peel
Lemon – zest

1 tsp

1-2 tsp fresh grated lemon peel -OR- 1/2 tsp lemon extract
Lemon juice (fresh)

1 tbsp

1 tbsp bottled lemon juice or white vinegar
Lime – zest

1 tsp

1 tsp lemon or orange
Lime juice, freshly squeezed

1 tbsp

1 tbsp lemon or orange juice
Maple syrup

1 cup

1 cup honey -OR- 3/4 cup corn syrup + 1/4 cup butter + 1/2 tsp maple extract (optional)
Marshmallows, Miniature

1 cup

10 large marshmallows
Marzipan

2-1/2 cups

2 cups almond paste + 1 cup powdered sugar + 2 tbsp light corn syrup
Mascarpone cheese

1 cup

1 cup Crème fraîche -OR- 3/4 cup cream cheese beaten with 1/4 cup heavy whipping cream (35%)
Mayonnaise

1 cup

1 cup sour cream -OR- 1 cup yogurt — For use in salads and salad dressings
Milk – buttermilk or sour

1 cup

1 cup plain yogurt -OR- 1 cup whole milk and 1 tbsp lemon juice
Milk – coconut

1 cup

1 cup canned coconut milk (not low fat) -OR- 3 tbsp canned cream of coconut + enough hot water or milk to equal 1 cup -OR- 1/4 cup coconut cream powder + 1 cup hot water or milk
Milk – evaporated

1 cup

1 cup half & half (10-12%) -OR- 1 cup light or table cream (20%) -OR- 1 cup light (30%) or heavy whipping cream (35%)
Milk – nut

1 cup

1 cup cow’s milk
Milk – regular or low-fat

1 cup

1/2 cup evaporated milk + 1/2 cup water -OR- nonfat dry milk prepared as directed on package
Milk – rice

1 cup

1 cup cow’s milk
Milk – soy

1 cup

1 cup cow’s milk
Milk – sweetened condensed

1 can

Heat and stir 1/3 cup and 2 tbsp evaporated milk, 1 cup sugar and 3 tbsp butter until sugar has dissolved.
Molasses

1 cup

1/2 to 1 cup honey (flavor will be milder) -OR- 1 cup dark corn syrup -OR- 1 cup maple syrup -OR- 3/4 cup light or dark brown sugar heated to dissolve in 1/4 cup liquid
Mushrooms (fresh)

1 cup cooked, sliced

1 (4oz) can mushroom stems and pieces, drained
Mustard – ground

1 tsp

1 tbsp prepared mustard
Oil

1 cup

1 cup applesauce; for cake and cookie recipes
Onion

1 small or 1/4 cup chopped, fresh onion

1 tbsp instant minced onion — Dried onion may be added directly to moist foods such as soups, gravies, sauces and salad dressings. You may need to rehydrate it with a little water before adding it to drier food
Orange

1 piece

1/3 cup juice -OR- 2 tsp grated peel
Orange – zest (grated)

1 tsp

1 tsp dried orange peel -OR- 1 tsp lemon or lime zest -OR- 1 tsp finely chopped candied orange peel
Orange juice, freshly squeezed

1 cup

1 cup reconstituted frozen concentrate
Polenta, dry

1 cup

1 cup cornmeal -OR- 1 cup maize meal -OR- 1 cup corn grits
Poultry seasoning

1 tsp

1/4 tsp ground thyme + 3/4 tsp ground sage
Pumpkin pie spice

1 tsp

Mix 1/2 tsp ground cinnamon, 1/4 tsp ground ginger, 1/8 tsp ground allspice and 1/8 tsp ground nutmeg
Raisins

1 cup

1 cup dried currants -OR- 1 cup pitted chopped dates -OR- 1 cup dried fruit, finely chopped (cherries, cranberries, blueberries, etc.)
Red pepper sauce

3 or 4 drops

1/8 tsp ground red pepper (cayenne)
Ricotta cheese

1 cup

1 cup cottage cheese + 1 Tbsp skim milk
Rose Water

1 tsp

1 tsp any flower-based water
Rum

any amount

1 part rum extract + 3 parts water — I.e.: for 1/4 cup rum, substitute 1 tbsp rum extract + 3 tbsp water.
Saffron

1 tsp

1 tsp tumeric
Sesame seed

1 tbsp

1 tbsp finely chopped blanched almonds
Shortening, melted

1 cup

1 cup cooking oil
Shortening, solid

1 cup

1-1/8 cup butter or margarine (decrease salt in recipe by 1/2 tsp)
Sour cream

1 cup

1 cup yogurt -OR- mix together 3/4 cup milk, 3/4 tsp lemon juice and 1/2 cup butter
Soy sauce

1 tbsp

1 tbsp teriyaki Sauce
Sugar – brown (packed)

1 cup

3/4 cup granulated sugar + 1/4 cup molasses
Sugar – confectioners’ or powdered

1 cup

1 cup granulated sugar + 1 tbsp cornstarch — Process in a food processor using the metal blade attachment until it’s well blended and powdery.
Sugar – maple (finely grated)

1/2 cup

1 cup maple syrup (reduce liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup) -OR- 3/4 cup granulated white sugar + 1 tsp pure maple extract
Sugar (packed)

1 cup

1 cup light brown sugar (packed) or 2 cups powdered sugar
Tomato juice

1 cup

1/2 cup tomato sauce + 1/2 cup water
Tomato paste

1/2 cup

1 cup tomato sauce cooked uncovered to reduce to 1/2 cup
Tomato sauce

1 cup

6 tbsp tomato paste and 1/2 water
Tomato soup

10-3/4 oz can

1 cup tomato sauce + 1/4 cup water
Tomatoes (canned)

1 cup

about 1-1/3 cups cut-up fresh tomatoes, simmered 10 minutes
Treacle

1 cup

1 cup light or dark corn syrup -OR- 1 cup light molasses
Vinegar – apple cider

1/4 cup

1/4 cup white vinegar
Vinegar – white

1/4 cup

1/4 cup apple cider vinegar -OR- 1/3 cup lemon juice
Walnuts – unshelled

1 lb

1-1/2 to 1-3/4 cups shelled
Water

3/4 cup

1 cup cow’s milk
Wine – red

1 cup

1 cup apple cider, grape juice or cranberry juice
Wine – white

1 cup

1 cup apple juice, apple cider, white grape juice or chicken broth
Wine in desserts

1/2 cup

1/2 cup fruit juice
Wine in savory recipes

1/2 cup

1/2 cup chicken broth
Yeast – compressed

3/5 oz

1 package (1/4oz) active dry yeast -OR- 2-1/2 tsp loose active dry yeast
Yeast – regular or quick active dry)

1 (1/4oz) pkg

2-1/4 tsp regular or quick active dry -OR- 1 (o.6oz) compressed cake yeast
Yogurt – plain

1 cup

1 cup buttermilk -OR- 1 cup sour cream

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